Traffic calming is a generic term for a wide range of measures that seek to reduce the negative impact of traffic to achieve safety and environmental improvement.
The aims are to reduce the severity and number of accidents, improve real and perceived safety for all road users, especially pedestrians and to influence driver behaviour. It does not physically seek to displace traffic onto alternative routes.
Traffic calming can be accomplished by installing, road humps, speed cushions, raised junction plateaux, chicanes, road narrowing, road closures.
The use of each of these features any road on will depend on a detailed assessment of such things as, use of the road eg main road or residential road, on-street parking, bus route, emergency services route etc.